Aneurismal bone cyst is a benign (non-cancerous) aggressive tumor of bone. It’s commonly seen in very young kids. Most commonly it involves bones around the knee joint. However, it can affect any bone of body. It is basically an area of bone which is destroyed by an intra ossueus arterio – venous fistula. In simple words, it’s a lesion in bone where the normal calcium has been replaced by a cavity filled with blood.
Most patients present with gradually increasing painful swelling around the joints. Many patients complain of inability to put weight on the leg. Its a weak part of bone and it can fracture even with minor trauma.
It is diagnosed with the help of Xray, MRI and needle biopsy. There are very classical findings on xray and MRI which make the diagnosis simpler. However a biopsy in MUST before treatment as sometimes, osteosarcoma (bone cancer) can mimic the ABC.
Current standard of care for treatment of ABC is known as “Curopsy + sclerotherapy”. It is a minimally invasive treatment where only a 5 mm cut is made on the skin and the cyst walls are removed with a special needle. In the same sitting, a special sclerosing agent is injected in the cyst. This procedure may need to be repeated 2 or 3 times at 6 to 8 weekly interval. Success rate of this procedure is 80%.
As far as possible, a major surgery is avoided in treatment of ABCs. But in resistant cysts, intralesional curettage and Bone grafting is done which is curative in almost all the patients.
Once the treatment is over, patient needs to follow up on regular bases irrespective of any problems for next 5 years. It is only then, that the patient is declared free of tumor!
|1||For first 2 years||3 monthly|
|2||For next 3 years||yearly|
|3||For next 5 years||sos|